Analyzing the steps in a scientific research process

Analyzing the steps in a scientific research process

Introduction

The research process refers to a plan or method to carry out a study with the aim of answering a particular question(s) about a phenomenon. The research process involves various steps that are termed as cyclic. In healthcare, following the steps in the process is essential to obtain credible, objective and replicable results. The steps include selecting the problem and formulating the research question, formulating the hypothesis, designing the experiment and data collection, analyzing the data and interpreting the findings.

 

Problem selection and formulating the question

In this step, the researcher makes observations and defines the topic of interest which s/he wishes to research on. After this, the researcher has to perform a thorough review of available literature on the topic which may comprise reviewing books as well as academic journals. The researcher may also seek assistance from colleagues, faculty, and supervisors for opinions on topics to research.Through the review, the researcher can obtain invaluable information that guides them on what has been answered on and the areas that are yet to be researched with relation to the topic (Neutens&Rubinson, 2014). The researcher is then able to formulate a question that he seeks to answer through his/her research project. The question may be as simple as “What is the role of nurses in patient advise and counseling?” the question acts as a compass for the researcher by offering the direction which the researcher should pursue. It defines to him/herthe next courses of his/her actions.

Formulating the hypothesis

A hypothesis is a concise and clear statement that is an educated or an informed guess as to what the answer to the research question might be. To formulate a proper hypothesis, the researcher must define all the variables pertaining to the research as the hypothesis defines the relationship between the variables. The hypothesis may be a precise cause-and-effect clause about the various variables or a generalized statement on the variables. A good hypothesis should be testable, falsifiable, show a clear relationship between the research variables and offer a logical explanation for the predicted outcome (Neutens&Rubinson, 2014). The research findings will aim to prove or disprove the hypothesis.

Designing the experiment and data collection

The experiment is a crucial part of the research as it defines the process through which the data is going to be collected. The design of the experiment must be appropriate for the research question at hand as it will determine the quality and quantity of data that is collected. Designing the experiment involves defining the methods of data collection, the target population;the sample size and how samples will be obtained (Neutens&Rubinson, 2014). Besides, it involves determining the dates and times for the experiments to be carried out, defining and testing the instruments to be used for data collection and defining any controls that will be used. Moreover, the researcher also defines the best methods to use for analysis of data after collection. The methods of analysis depend on the type of experiment and the type of data collected about the research question

After designing the experiment, the researcher has to go to the field and collect all the relevant data according to the sample size desired. The researcher must stick to the plans defined during the design of the experiment. Moreover, s/he must take measures to ensure that the data collected should be authentic, accurate and free from bias. Additionally, s/he must adhere to all the ethical standards that are relevant to the type of research s/he is conducting.


 

Analyzing the data

In this stage, the researcher converts the raw data obtained into meaningful information that is in line with the objectives of the research. The data is broken down and evaluated thoroughly and transformed into a form that the end users can understand (Neutens&Rubinson, 2014). The researcher must adhere to the plans and analytical methods that were defined during experiment design. The plans must define what information the data should reveal to confirm the hypothesis. Analysis can be done through the use of statistical tools which may be either inferential or descriptive. Inferential statistics consists of carrying out tests of significance that can either prove or disprove the hypothesis. On the other hand, descriptive statistics will describe the data collected through measures such as means, data distribution and standard deviation.

Interpreting the findings

After analysis, the information obtained is used to draw conclusions and make decisions. In scientific research, the findings are evaluated against the hypothesis as well as conclusions obtained from experiments by previous researchers if they exist. The researcher explains his findings in detail and how they relate to the real world. If the findings confirm the hypothesis to be true, then the researcher has succeeded in answering his research question. If the results disprove his hypothesis, the researcher may continue with the inquiry and forms another hypothesis and tests it.

The researcher then publishes his findings and shares it with other scientists so that they can verify the findings and to be used as reference material that will assist in future research endeavors.  It is important to note that this is not the final stage in research as it generates valuable data that will be applied by another researcher who will incorporate the data into the first step of his research process (Neutens&Rubinson, 2014). Hence, the scientific research process is termed as cyclic.

We Can Be Heroes

We Can Be Heroes
First, think back to your favorite item/thing/commodity from your childhood (a book, cartoon, movie, song, etc.) – or the hero from your adolescence.

Drawing on our discussions, write a 1,200-1,500 page essay (or comparable alternate means of presentation) in which you offer a rich, nuanced reflection of your item/thing/commodity or hero.

Begin the paper by describing the object – or hero – in detail. Then use the balance of the paper to fashion answers to these questions:

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What does the item/thing/commodity say about our larger cultural experience?

What does it say about your cultural experience as a child or adolescent?

What is the object or hero’s significance? Or is it actually insignificant now that you’ve thought it through?

How have the media treated or portrayed your object – your hero? Explore and explain the dominant narrative that’s been put out there.

What was the “real” experience of interacting with the object/hero as a kid or adolescent? And now, as an adult?

Has your perception of the object/hero changed over time and in light of our discussions and shared readings?

Consumer Behavior; Consumer Lifestyle Project

PART 2 –Primary Research:

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On the DUE Date each team will deliver …

  • A typed Word Document, individual sections put together …Describing Norms, Events, Hot Trends, Cooled Trends, Future Trends, etc. of your team’s lifestyle.

 

Specifics:

  • Each student will interview 1 “decision maker” of assigned Lifestyle. You may not interview a teammate or anyone in your group…including yourself.
  • Lifestyle Target Markets…
    • Health Conscious: M/F, ages 35-45, with young children
    • Binge Watchers: M/F, ages 19-29
    • Fit/Tech: M/F, Health Conscious, Tech savvy, ages 29-39
    • Fashion Forward: M/F, ages 19-29.
    • Cos-Play: M/F, creative, eclectic, ages 19-34.

 

  • Questions: Ask and use 1 paragraph to describe each of the following …
    • Ask them what do they do for a living
    • Ask them to describe a Crescive Norm of their Lifestyle. Explain Crescive to them before you ask.
    • Ask them to describe an Enacted Norm of their Lifestyle. Explain Enacted to them before you ask.
    • Ask them to identify & describe THE “Social Event of the Year” of their Lifestyle
    • Ask them to identify& describe 1 other “Key Event” of their Lifestyle …doesn’t have to be a Social Event, but it can be.
    • Ask them to identify & describe 1 Gift-Giving Event of their Lifestyle
    • Ask them to identify and describe 1 “Hot trend” currently in their Lifestyle.
    • Subsequently, find and discuss an article on this Hot Trend
      • Use images and/or videos…to help this description

 

  • Ask them to Identify and describe 1 “Cooled trend” in their Lifestyle.
  • Subsequently, find and discuss an article on this Cooled Trend
    • Use images and/or videos…to help this description.

 

  • Ask them to Identify and describe 1 “Future trend” in their Lifestyle.
  • Subsequently, find and discuss an article on this Future Trend
    • Use images and/or videos …to help this description.

 

 

 

 

Each Team should …

  • Create Bibliography at end of paper using APA Format …see next page…for each article you use
  • Use In-Text Citations in body of paper when citing an article

Quality Healthcare Management

Instructions

According to an article published in the News Tribune, a 39-year old woman who was being treated for breast cancer diet as a result of receiving the wrong dosage of cyclophosphamide and an overdose of another drug meant to keep her from suffering side effects. This happened at a reputable facility that specializes in the treatment of cancer.

At least a dozen doctors, pharmacists and nurses missed the medication error for four days. Her husband reported that she suffered tremendously as the lining of her intestine was shed, resulting in her literally vomiting sheets of tissue. The doctors had reassured the patient and her husband that all was normal.

Her heart failed after receiving four times the recommended amount of medication.

An autopsy revealed no visible signs of cancer in her body, which indicated that the treatment had worked. Another woman died of a similar mistake two days earlier. Human error was felt the only possible explanation, according to the treatment center. Incorrect doses of medication through either dispensing error, administration error or prescription error can be deadly. Moreover, many adverse events go unreported.

Answer the following questions:

1 What type of event is this? Provide reasons to support your answer

2 Hospitals perform several types of patient care reviews, usually through a committee. What type of reviews would be done on this case?

3 What is the process used to identify the cause of this death, who needs to be involved in the investigation and what tools should be used to analyze the situation?

4 Discuss what kinds of changes are likely to result in an improved system for treating patients using toxic medication.

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Answer

Quality management

The case in question is a fatal adverse drug event due to medication errors which led to overdosing of the patient. This is due to the wrong dosage of cyclophosphamide which was meant to treat breast cancer. Additionally, the patient was overdosed on another drug that was meant to relieve the side effects of cyclophosphamide. Consequently, the patient experienced harmful side effects such as the shedding and vomiting of intestinal lining, heart failure and eventually death. The doctors, nurses and pharmacists involved had missed the medication errors for four days and despite the husband reporting on his wife’s(the patient)  suffering, his sentiments were overlooked by the healthcare team.

An intensive chart review would be appropriate to investigate the adverse event. Specifically, a cause-and-effect diagram would be invaluable in identifying the origin, factors and the outcomes that led to the overdose and eventual death of the patient. The review should be done by an independent team comprising different people from the team who attended to the patient. The improvement strategy of choice would be the Baldrige Award Criteria, as it focuses on identifying problems and the team(s) that should take ownership of the identified problems.  The tool required for analysis of the situation is the failure mode and effects analysis which can be applied both retrospectively to analyze previous cases as well as prospectively to identify potential failure in different areas.

The changes likely to lead to an improved patient treatment system include involvement of the patient in the treatment by listening to their opinions during treatment. Additionally, the healthcare team needs to collect both quantitative and qualitative data on adverse drug events so as to have a database that can be referred to for prevention of future events. Moreover, there should be free flow of knowledge among the different cadres in the healthcare team, and through this, detection of errors duringdrug prescription, dispensing or administration is made easier.

The Rule of Law in The Design of a Constitution

The Rule of Law in The Design of a Constitution

Introduction

The rule of law is a legal maxim that posits that no individual is above the constitution, be it an ordinary citizen or a leader. The law is supreme over individual will or the rule of power. In essence, the rule of law is enforced to limit subjective use of power by leaders. On the other hand, the doctrine of separation of powers deals with division of responsibilities among the three arms of the government, the legislature, the executive, and the judiciary. The objective is to ensure the autonomy of the three arms against interference from each other. However, in accordance with the law, the three arms are interdependent on each other as all three are needed for formulation, execution and administration of laws (Rosenfeld, 1993). Each branch maintains checks and balances on the other branches hence limiting abuse of power. The concepts of the rule of law and separation of powers in the constitution work in tandem as they are dependent on each other for successful implementation.

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Rule of Law

As aforementioned, the concept of rule of law places the law above any individual interest. The objective of rule of law is to ensure that authority by any governmental apparatus is legitimately exercised in accordance with the due process which comprises established procedures as prescribed in the written and publicly disclosed laws. The intended outcome of this principle is maintenance of order by safeguarding against arbitrary use of power through mob rule or an authoritarian leader (Rosenfeld, 1993). In essence, it safeguards against anarchy or dictatorial rule.

The success and effectiveness of separation of powers is highly reliant on the rule of law. The framework of the constitution of countries such as the United Kingdom defines the separation of powers by outlining the functions of the three arms of the government. The legislative arm is charged with the power to formulate, amend as well as repeal the rules of law. The executive arm has the power to ensure execution and enforcement of the law. The judicial arm has the power to interpret the law, and in the case of a dispute, the judiciary has the final word on what the law is and how it is to be applied. On the other hand, in accordance with the constitution of the United States, the concept of separation of powers may have three different meanings. Firstly, it may mean that the same person cannot be part of more than one of the three arms of the government, for instance a minister cannot sit in the parliament. Secondly, it may also be interpreted to mean that one organ of the government cannot interfere or attempt to control another organ, for instance the executive cannot interfere with judicial decisions (Bruff, 2006). Lastly, separation of powers may mean that one organ of government cannot exercise the duties and responsibilities of another.

According to rule of law, exercise of power by the executive should be in accordance with the laws formulated by the legislature. All government officials therefore are to act within the boundaries set by the law. Acting beyond the confines of the law is tantamount to abuse of office (Rosenfeld, 1993). It is important to note that effective separation of powers is only possible where the courts have the jurisdiction and autonomy to enforce the legal bounds beyond which executive power cannot be exercised.

Limiting The Powers of the Legislature

The legislative arm of the government is charged with formulation, amendment and repealing of laws. According to the US constitution, the legislature also has the power to approve treaties, to sign declarations of war and control money in the economy (Verkuil, 1988). However, if there are no checks and balances prescribed in the constitution, the legislature may formulate or amend laws that favor their interests at the expense of the other arms of the government and the people at large. Therefore, there are mechanisms in the constitution to ensure that the legislature does not step beyond its mandate as it exercises its powers.

The constitution affords the judiciary powers to exercise checks and balances on the legislative arm. The courts have the powers to ensure that the legislative branch operates within the constitution. Hence, judiciary can declare acts made by the legislature unconstitutional. An example is in the case Epperson v. Arkansas, 393 U.S. 97 (1968). This was a case held in the Supreme Court of the US. Epperson, a grade 10 biology teacher, filed a suit in a chancery court to challenge the Arkansas statute that prohibited teaching the theory of human evolution in public schools. The chancery court had ruled in favor of Epperson as it held that the statute was in violation of the Fourteenth amendment which protected citizens from interference with freedom of thought and speech by the state. However, the decision was reversed by the Arkansas Supreme Court which held that the state acted within its powers to stipulate the curriculum in public learning institutions. Epperson appealed in the US Supreme Court, which concluded that the Arkansas Supreme Court had erred in its reversal. The US Supreme Court ruled that the statute against teaching evolution was unconstitutional as the state formulated it to protect certain religious views. The court ruled that the state had no business in protecting any religious group from opinions that such groups found distasteful. This is a case of the judiciary limiting the powers of the legislature.

Moreover, the executive also has powers to exercise checks on the legislature. This can be achieved through the president who can veto laws. If the president disapproves a piece of legislation, he can refuse to assent to the bill approved by the legislature hence the bill cannot have any legally binding effect (Bruff, 2006). The bill is therefore returned to the Congress unsigned. The president can also propose or give ideas about what laws s/he would like to be passed. Additionally, the executive can negotiate foreign treaties independent of the legislature. The executive also has the power to make appointments of key federal officialsand call for special sessions of the Congress.

The people also wield some power to keep the legislature in check. It is a requirement that every member of the legislature must be elected before they can carry out their duties. It is the responsibility of the people to decide who will constitute the legislature through their vote.

Limiting The Powers of the Executive

The executive arm is charged with administration and enforcement of laws. It is usually composed of the president or the prime minister, their deputies and the cabinet. The other arms of the government have powers to exercise checks and balances on the executive.

The legislature has the powers to ratify treaties. The executive can negotiate on behalf of the state for treaties but the legislature has to give formal consent to the treaty for it to be legally valid. In the same vein, the executive also requires legislative approval before withdrawal from any treaty. This is exhibited in the case Democratic Alliance v Minister of International Relations and Cooperation and Others (Council for the Advancement of the South African Constitution Intervening) (83145/2016) [2017]. In this case, the Democratic Alliance filed a suit in the High Court of South Africa to challenge the acts of the national executive to withdraw from an international treaty, The Rome Statute of the International Criminal Court, without prior approval from the legislature. The subject matter of the case concerned the separation of powers between the executive and the legislature in treaty-making and international relations. It sought the interpretation of article 127(1) – Section 231 of the Constitution of the Republic of South Africa, 1996. The national executive decided to withdraw from the Rome Statute. Consequently, the International Relations Minister signed the notice of withdrawal and forwarded it to the United Nations without prior approval from legislature. The court ruled that the act by the national executive to deliver the notice of withdrawal without approval from legislature was in violation of s 231(2) of the Constitution as it contravenes the doctrines of separation of powers. The court ruled that in the same way parliamentary approval was required before ratification of the treaty, it was the responsibility of the parliament to first repeal the law which made the treaty official before any notice of withdrawal was to be delivered to the United Nations.

The legislature can also override a presidential veto. In addition, the legislature has to confirm appointments by the executive before the appointed individual can occupy their new positions (Bruff, 2006).The judiciary can exercise checks and balances on the executive by declaring actions by the executive unconstitutional. Furthermore, in South Africa, the constitution has the provision of the office of the Public Protector who ensures that the rule of law prevails with relation to members of the executive. The Public Protector ensures that there is accountability and protection of the state from misuse of public resources by public office-bearers. In the case Economic Freedom Fighters v Speaker of the National Assembly and Others; Democratic Alliance v Speaker of the National Assembly and Others (CCT 143/15; CCT 171/15) [2016],the Public Protector performed an investigation after allegations of the president deriving undue benefit from state resources by performing upgrades to his private residence (Bruff, 2006).The Public Protector prepared a report that concluded that the president had acted in contravention of the constitution and recommended remedial actions that the legislature was to take to ensure the president obeyed the rule of law.

 

 

Limiting Powers of the Judiciary

The judiciary is charged with interpretation of the law and determination of how the law is applied. There are mechanisms in place to ensure checks and balances are maintained in the judicial arm. Both the executive and the legislature play a role in limiting the powers of the judiciary.

One of the limitations to powers of the judicial branch is that the members of the judiciary are allappointed by the executive. Therefore the executive has control over who gets to perform the duties and responsibilities of the judiciary. Furthermore, it is the responsibility of the judiciary to pass judgment to federal offenders and offer them sentence. However, the executive retains the power to grant pardon to the offenders if it deems an offender to have reformed for the better. The executive pardon overrides the judgment by the judiciary.

The legislature also exercises checks and balances on the judiciary. One of the ways is through having the power to create lower courts. The legislative arm can shape the judiciary in whichever way they deem suitable and put as many judges in office as they deem appropriate. Moreover, the legislative arm, being in charge of making and amending laws, can propose amendments to laws that override judicial decisions so long as the amendments are in accordance with the constitution (Bruff, 2006). In addition, the legislature has the powers to impeach as well as remove judges from their positions. This gives them the power to have input on who is to occupy positions in the judiciary. Also, the legislature has to approve the appointments of judges by the executive.

Conclusion

The concept of separation of powers is important in ensuring that order in the state is maintained by safeguarding against anarchy or authoritarian rule. For this to be effective, the rule of law needs to be upheld by everyone in the state. Moreover, the three branches of the government should be autonomous but simultaneously interdependent in the sense that the operations of one branch are kept in check by the other two branches (Verkuil, 1988). The three branches must work together to ensure formulation of proper laws that are constitutional, proper enforcement of the laws and an effective judiciary that is able to solve disputes relating to the law.

Book Report on Money ball the art of winning an unfair game

Subject or discipline: Health Care
Title: Money ball the art of winning an unfair game. By Michael Lewis
Number of sources: 0
Provide digital sources used: No
Paper format: MLA
# of pages: 2
Spacing: Double spaced
# of words: 550
# of slides: ppt icon 0
# of charts: 0
Paper details:
Write a book report on the book ‘ Money Ball the art of winning an unfair game. The book report has to be on how the book ”Money ball” relates to an area of health or wellness whether it be physical, intellectual, emotional or interpersonal.

Markets and Marketing Strategy

Order Instructions:
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1. Markets and Marketing Strategy
Marketing calls for businesses to understand who buys what, so let’s take a moment to consider market segmentation, the most basic concept involved in any discussion of marketing strategy and market structure. Market segmentation recognizes that in most product categories, buyers differ in
• whether they buy,
• what they want most,
• where and when they buy,
• what information they want and how they want to receive it, and
• what they’re willing to pay.
As a result, it is usually possible to break the population of potential buyers down into groups and to cater to the needs of those groups rather than choosing what we call “mass marketing” in which it is assumed that potential buyers are all alike in their needs and wants.
For some examples of market segmentation, check out a short piece by Neil Kokemuller in the Houston Chronicle: http://smallbusiness.chron.com/examples-market-segmentation-14403.html
Of course, simply recognizing, e.g., that urban and rural shoe buyers might differ in some of these respects may not be enough basis for designing a strategy for a shoe company.
Based on these two references,
Which one or two segmentation variables do you believe would be most appropriately used in designing the strategy for marketing a line of automobile tires?
Explain.
2. Marketing Mix: Products and Brands
Why are brand names so important in marketing?
A brand name might suggest something about the product’s benefits and qualities. It should also be easy to pronounce, recognize, and remember and be capable of registration and legal protection.
Provide examples of good and poor branding. Explain these selections. (Google “good and poor brand names” for help on these questions and be sure to cite the sources you use.)
How does distribution influence your opinion of the brand, positive or negative? Give examples.
3. Marketing Mix: Distribution Channels.
Have you ever heard of the term DISINTERMEDIATION?
This means to flatten an organization – removing one or more links in the distribution chain. In recent years, the internet has been a source of disintermediation as products traditionally sold through physical retail outlets can now be distributed directly from the manufacturer directly to the consumer – eliminating the MIDDLE MAN. By eliminating the middle man the price of the product can be reduced.
Identify a product now offered directly over the internet that used to be available only through a separate retailer. (Indicate the website where you found this product.)
(Be careful with this question as internet retailers – e.g., Amazon – and websites sponsored by traditional retailers – e.g., macys.com – do not constitute disintermediation, but only replace or complement traditional physical outlets.)
Explain the advantages and disadvantages associated with internet distribution for this product.
4. Marketing Mix: Communications and Promotion
Most promotional strategies have several elements to what is called the “promotional mix,” which may include various forms of advertising, public relations, sales promotion, product placement, packaging, and personal selling.
Choose a product and discuss the promotional strategy for this product.
What do you think are its objectives?
Which of the elements identified above are included? (Cite some examples from internet sources – print media and sponsor’s websites, YouTube, or articles in the trade or business press.)
In your judgment, is the strategy effective or not based on the objectives that you identified? Explain.
Marketing Mix: Pricing
Note that the concept of Price more usefully represents a customer-oriented perspective taken by marketers, rather than only “What we charge the customer.” Thus, an effective pricing strategy necessarily takes into account barriers to purchase, i.e., sacrifices required to obtain a product or service, as well as the prospect that company circumstances and objectives may differ.
Choose a product and explain the pricing strategy for this product.
What do you think are its objectives?
What barriers to purchase, including, but not limited to its cost, do you expect its potential customers to experience?
In your judgment, is the strategy effective or not based on the objectives that you identified? Explain. What other approaches would you recommend in setting a pricing strategy for this product?
Be sure to cite your sources of information in addressing these questions.
Reflection
Marketing is often criticized for providing products and services that are, e.g., targeted to vulnerable consumers, bad for the environment, not needed, cost too much, socially dysfunctional, or even bad for those who want and use them.
Provide a few examples that prompt these criticisms?
Are there any good examples of marketing having delivered consumer and/or social value that you can name?
Be sure to cite your sources of information in addressing these questions.

The Importance of Strategy

Order Instructions:
Cite and references all questions individually
1. The Importance of Strategy
Please consider three key management concepts presented in this course. Describe how they all work together to help organizations succeed. Please provide an example of how these key concepts work together in a management context.
Your response should be supported with relevant background sources, which must be properly cited & referenced.
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2. External Environment
The external environment is important to consider in the strategic management process. Discuss how companies use the Porter’s Five Forces model to assess the organization’s external environment and why that is so important to successful strategic management.
Your response should be supported with relevant background sources, which must be properly cited & referenced.
3. Internal Evaluation
Internal Evaluation; this is the “SW” of the SWOT analysis. Every organization has strengths and weaknesses. As with the last TD question, give an example of a company you know or read up on who did not really develop their strengths or deal with key weaknesses.
Your response should be supported with relevant background sources, which must be properly cited & referenced.
4. Cost Leadership or Differentiation
Is it possible for a company or business unit to follow a cost leadership strategy and a differentiation strategy simultaneously? Why or why not? Use an example in your answer to illustrate your position.
Your response should be supported with relevant background sources, which must be properly cited & referenced.
5. Strategic Controls
You are now in charge of an organization (Profit, Non-profit, volunteer, defense) your choice. Describe the controls would you want to review to determine if the organization and the individuals are moving in the correct direction. List the top three measurement controls you would want to see.
Your response should be supported with relevant background sources, which must be properly cited & referenced.
6. Integration and Reflection
Please consider three key strategic management concepts presented in this course. Describe how they all work together to help organizations succeed. Please provide an example of how these key concepts work together in a management context.
Your response should be supported with relevant background sources, which must be properly cited & referenced

McGregor’s Theory X and Theory Y

Order Instructions:
MGT301 TD
Please separate all question to provide the references and cites.
1. McGregor’s Theory X and Theory Y
Please go to Module 1 background readings and please explain McGregor’s Theory X and Theory Y, and how you would utilize Theory X and Y in your own work environments. Next, critique both Theory X and Theory Y. Which do you prefer as an employee and which do you prefer as a manager?
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Your response should be supported with relevant background sources, which must be properly cited & referenced.
2. Power and Influence
Explain some different ways that members succeed in gaining power and influence in the workplace. Assess and explain a time when you gained power and influence in your own workplace. How successful was it? Lastly, who is a leader that you admire that possesses referent power and provide three examples.
Your response should be supported with relevant background sources, which must be properly cited & referenced.
3. Organizational Culture and Change
What is the difference between a group, a team, and a high-performing team? Discuss a time when you were in a group, a team, and a high-performing team? As a manager, how would you transform a group into a high performing team? What is the difference between synergy and groupthink? How would you encourage synergy without promoting groupthink?
Your response should be supported with relevant background sources, which must be properly cited & referenced.
4. Decision Making
Assume that you have a co-worker who is having problems making decisions. Explain the process you would recommend for the co-worker to improve his or her decision making process. Many managers rely on gut instinct to make important decisions, which often leads to poor results. On the contrary, when managers insist on incorporating logic and evidence, they make better choices and their companies benefit. Discuss some specific examples of how a manager can incorporate logic and evidence when making decisions.
Your response should be supported with relevant background sources, which must be properly cited & referenced.
5. Resistance to Change
Think about a time when you were part of an organization that experienced a change in culture. Perhaps it was a new boss, structure change, a business change, or another significant shift in the organization. Briefly explain how you worked through the change and what the outcome was. Discuss your action plan. Discuss the reasons for resistance to change and the ways to deal with resistance to change. Next, if you were the CEO of an organization, how would you deal with a technological change?
Your response should be supported with relevant background sources, which must be properly cited & referenced.
6. Reflection on Course Concepts
Given the readings and assignments in the course, identify and briefly discuss two important concepts that you feel are most applicable to your professional discipline.
Please reference and cite scholarly sources in your comments.