Privacy: Should the government be allowed to wire tap without permission?

Topic: Privacy. Should the government be allowed to wire tap without permission?

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“For Research Project #3, complete an essay of 5 pages (minimum) in length. Your paper must properly integrate source material. For Research Project #3, it is NOT acceptable for your sources to come from websites. Your paper must use sources from any combination of books, ebooks, journals, magazines, database articles, etc. This does mean that you can conduct your research electronically making use of the Internet — but if so, you must use academic sources accessed via our library’s portal. Your paper must make use of proper MLA or APA formatting and documentation — you must be consistent with ONE method throughout; papers submitted without accompanying Works Cited/References pages will automatically earn 0’s. Do not use more than 5 sources.”

Please also include 5 PowerPoint slides on Research Paper

What is the Effect of Water Privatization in Developing Countries on the Environment?

What is the Effect of Water Privatization in Developing Countries on the Environment?

Water privatization is the involvement of the private sector in provision of water and sanitation services to citizens in a country, state, or city. Data in the Pinsent Masons Water Yearbook (2011) estimated that 909 million people in the world rely on the services of private water companies. This is approximately 13% of today’s world population. Majority of these companies were French, German, and British. In many developing countries, the push to privatize water services comes from external sources, mainly the international funding bodies such as the International Monetary Fund (IMF) and the World Bank. Examples of such countries are Bolivia and Tanzania (Bakker, 2010). On the other hand, in developed countries, the impetus for privatization of the services is usually from the respective governing bodies. Examples include Saudi Arabia and Germany. In general, privatization of water services may come in two forms: full privatization and public-private partnerships. In the former, the private investor purchases all the related assets permanently. In the latter, the private investor is responsible for selected functions only while the public retains ownership of assets (Berry, 2010). Water privatization has both positive and negative impacts on the countries involved, and this paper explores these effects.

Firstly, privatization has had an impact in access to water and sewerage services. The impacts have been mixed. According to a before-after study carried out by the World Bank, statistics stated that privatization has increased access to 24 million more people since the 1990s. In many countries such as Brazil and Argentina, there was a net increase in access to water by the population (Robinson, 2013). Privatization has increased delivery of clean, safe, and piped water to households. It is reported that connections increased especially among the poorer populations who previously were not connected. The wealthier populations were not affected much because they already were connected. On the other hand, privatization has also led to a decline in access to water among some poor populations. This is especially prevalent in African countries such as Ghana, Niger, and South Africa (Bakker, 2010). The main reason is that the governments are not efficient at managing their resources and hence they cannot regulate the private investors. This decline in access is blamed on the high water tariffs imposed by the private investors. The poorest usually cannot afford these prices and hence the companies disconnect this section of the population. In addition, in Ghana, the investors usually disconnected a majority of the population to discourage illegal connections and force people to pay their arrears. This led to water shortages (McDonald, 2012). Moreover, some companies whose main aim is pegged on maximizing profits have been known to improve their services in the wealthier parts of the countries. This is because these areas can afford the services and hence earn more profits for the company. The same companies would neglect poorer areas of the country because it would lead to losses for the company because of their inability to afford.

Secondly, water privatization has had an impact on the health of the populations. In areas where water access increased after privatization, child mortality rates decreased tremendously. It is estimated that globally, the infant mortality rate has taken a nosedive with privatization, down by 26% (Bakker, 2010). The figure was in comparison to mortality rates in cities, which remained under public water management. This has been due to improved supply of clean water and a reduction in infectious diseases such as cholera and diarrhea. This is especially true in the poorer sections of certain countries, which previously had no access to clean water. In general, the prevalence of preventable diseases in these cities decreased. However, in some cities an increase in preventable diseases was reported. The most notable was in South Africa. Here, the poorer populations experienced water shortages due to disconnections by the private companies Suez and Semcorp (McDonald, 2012). The poor populations could not afford the tariffs imposed by the companies. As a result, these people had to look for water elsewhere. Some had to trek for long distances in search of the commodity. Most of them however relied on stealing water through illegal connections. For the most part, water obtained through such illegal connections was contaminated and cases of cholera increased among that section of the population. The net effect of this act increased hate between the wealthy and the poor, as the latter regarded the act as prejudice. As a result, increased violence against neighborhoods was noted.

Thirdly, there was a change in the water tariffs across all the countries. In general, there was a long-term increase in the water tariffs. In some select cases such as Manila and Buenos Aires, there was an initial decline in the rates, but this was short-lived as the rates soon skyrocketed. In some special cases especially in Sub-Saharan Africa, most notably in Gabon, the rates decreased. In Senegal, the rates remained relatively stable even after privatization. The increases are related to the profit margins targeted by the private investors, as well as the price of increased efficiency of services and the labor costs (McDonald, 2012). In the case of Argentina, in July 2002, the subsidiary Aguas Argentinas S.A. under the parent company Suez was reported to have made supernormal profits. The profits were estimated at 19% of its net worth. These were made amidst claims that the rates had decreased by 27%, while in real sense they increased by 20%. The citizens regarded this as unfair since the company had lain off almost 50% of their employees while simultaneously increasing the tariffs. Nevertheless, in countries where development aid was the source of funding such as in Kenya, the rates did not change over time (McDonald, 2012).

In general, water privatization led to increased efficiency in management of water resources in many countries. The reason for this is that governments of these countries were experiencing difficulties in management of water under public ownership. Some of the governments were purely negligent while others employed inefficient management teams to be in charge of the resource. However, in select cases privatization did not improve the efficiency. Case in point is the municipality of Cochabamba in Bolivia. The Bolivian government opted to bid for privatization of water services after the World Bank threatened to withhold aid. An American company, Betchel won the bid and in effect, they were granted a 40-year contract from 1999 (Shultz, 2008). As the company began its operations, the tariffs tripled, leading to violent protests from the masses. The company was unable to deliver its promises and was expelled from the country before the contractual deadline. Another flop in efficiency was observed in Argentina, where the French company Suez delegated its operations to its subsidiary Aguas Argentinas S.A. The company’s profits declined after the first 8 years. As a result, they were unable to construct a new sewage treatment plant, which was among its chief obligations. In addition, the company had to lay off almost 50% of its employees, leading to loss of jobs. The failure of the company led to draining of over 95% of sewage in Buenos Aires directly into Rio del Plata River (Birn, 2009).

Lastly, privatization of water has had effects on profitability. In a study performed on five Latin American countries among them Brazil, Argentina, Chile, Bolivia and Colombia, the returns on investment were found to be modest (Shultz, 2008). The profits fell below the projected targets. For some of the cases, the returns fell below the capital costs. In comparison to other private investments such as telecommunications, water concessions did not fare well in terms of profitability. Proponents of water privatizations have argued that low public profitability from water concessions is not necessarily a bad thing (Birn, 2009). They assert that the private companies must sustain themselves first before looking to the interests of the public. The companies must make enough returns to sustain their operations and to cater for the capital costs. In addition, the private companies must also make enough to be able to pay their shareholders. This fact causes unrest among opponents to privatization (Birn, 2009). They have argued that public  resources should not be diverted into paying dividends but should only be used to run the water systems.

In conclusion, privatization does not provide the best method of dealing with water problems. It has its advantages but the disadvantages are even more alarming. Generally, most people believe that water is a natural resource to which every human being should have the right to access. Majority of people also believe that water should not be turned into a commodity as this restricts its access to those who live below the poverty line. Moreover, the International Monetary Fund (IMF) and World Bank should avoid forcing governments of developing countries to adopt water privatization by threats of withholding aid (Berry, 2010). Such governments adopt these policies without prior organization, which leads to inefficient management. In addition, private investors exploit citizens of such countries. I believe that it is the duty of every government to make and implement policies that work in favor of its citizens regarding water resources. After achieving this, the governments can then opt to engage the private sector in such matters.

 

 

Hypothyroidism vs Hyperthyroidism

 

Order Instructions:
Differentiate the symptoms of a patient presenting with Hypothyroidism versus Hyperthyroidism.
What blood tests would be used to differentiate between the two and what results might you expect?
Grading Criteria:
Maximum Points
Discussion Question Responses: Displays an understanding of the course materials and the underlying concept discussed. Includes course materials and additional scholarly resources to support important points.
15
Participation Responses: Displays an understanding of topic under discussion by affirming statements, asking a related question, or making an oppositional statement. Position must be supported with related evidence. Responds to a minimum of two peers per question.
10
Professional Practice Connection: Demonstrates reflective thought pertaining to personal perspectives and professional development. Reflective statements include a theoretical rationale.
10
Quality of Academic Writing: Written responses are free of grammatical, spelling or punctuation errors. Citations and references are included and written in the correct APA Style.
10
Total
45

Abstract

Thyroid is agland situated in the neck region and it secretes two   hormones: Thyroxine(T4) which constitute 90% and triiodothyroninne (T3) constituting the rest 10%.In the periphery T4 is converted to T3 and their secretion regulated by hypothalamo-pituitary axis through actions of TRH and TSH.  Thyroid hormones increase body basal metabolic rate and stimulate thermogenesis. Reduced action of the thyroid hormones in tissues results in hypothyroidism while on the other hand excess effect results in hyperthyroidism. This paper focuses mainly on symptoms and diagnosis of the two.

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Hypothyroidism is more common in women compared to men (Toft, 2011); it may be hereditary or acquired and is indicated by the following signs and symptoms which mainly depends on the duration, underlying cause and age of patient.Mild hypothyroidism symptoms include non –specific symptoms such as fatigue,cold intolerance, sleepiness and muscle aches (Barnes andGalton, 2013). Other symptoms include bradycardia, constipation, menstrual irregularities, dry skin,edema,coarse hair and memory loss and difficulty with concentration.It is also associated with endothelial function impairment, left ventricular dysfunction and increased diastolic pressure due to raised systemic vascular resistance.Hypothyroidism may give rise to myxedema coma characterized by hypothermia,bradycardia and skin and facial changes.

Hyperthyroidism may be caused through different mechanism which may includegraves’disease, iodide excess, thyroid carcinomas, etc. and may bring varying symptoms depending on the cause,age of patient and duration of the disease. Patients with hyperthyroidism may present with the following signs and symptoms: fatigue, nervousness,heat intolerant, excessive sweating,palpitation,insomnia,dyspnea,poor concentrationand oligomenorrhea.They may also show some of this additional signs: Weight loss, tachycardia,hyper kinesis,warm moist skin ,proximal myopathy,emotional liability and in most  cases have enlarged thyroid.Some of the symptoms are specific for example thyroid ophthlamopathy,thyroideye disease andpretibialmyxedema in grave`s disease.

Different blood tests may be carried in the laboratory where blood is drawn from antecubital vein and sent to lab for analysis. The blood test involve TSH,free T4 and free T3 level in  the blood  and sometimes the thyroid antibodies level to show underlying cause of the disease. Any concentration below or above the normal range of the above enzymes(TSH:0.4-4mU/L,freeT4:9.0-25.0pmol/L and freeT3:3.5-7.8pmol/L) may indicate a thyroid disorder. Interpretation of the lab results may be as follows: high TSH level (above 4.5mU/L) and low free T4 level (below 9pmol/L) suggest underperforming thyroid (hypothyroidism). While on the other hand low TSH level ( below 0.4mU/L ) and high free T4 level ( above 25.0 pmol/L) may suggest an over active thyroid ( Hyperthyroidism ).If TSH level is slightly raised but the free T4 level is within the normal range then the resulting condition is termed as subclinical hypothyroidism which may lead to overt/clinical hypothyroidism after sometime and the risk may be accessed by measuring thyroid antibodies level where the risk increases with increase in antibodies level (Kharrazian, 2010). Both low TSH and free T4 level indicates secondary hypothyroidism due to hypopituitarism. Free T3 level is mainly used to indicate hyperthyroidism or its severity where its high level indicates hyperthyroidism and to the extent with which it exceeds the normal range indicating the severity of hyperthyroidism. Increased thyroid antibodies level indicates an

autoimmune cause of hypothyroidism.

Hypothyroidism and hyperthyroidism as seen from the above discussion have opposing symptoms where in hypothyroidism the symptoms indicate lower metabolic rates while in hyperthyroidism symptoms results from high metabolic rates. The diagnosis of the two are mainly based on thyroid hormones level and functions

The Financial Crisis of 2008

Use the following questions to form your essay about the Financial Crisis of 2008. Also state your opinion on what steps financial market participants could take  to mitigate a crisis similar to this happening in the future.

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  • What were the causes of financial crisis of 2008?
  • Should banks be required to hold reserves against their off balance sheet activities?
  • Should government regulate mortgage terms and security conditions?
  • Has globalization created the inevitability of global contagion in financial crisis?
  • Did the financial crisis make a recession inevitable?

Earthquake activity

Topic: Earthquake activity
Type of document: Coursework
Academic Level:Undergraduate
Number of Pages: 3 (Double Spaced)
Category:   Geology
Language Style: English (U.S.)
Writing Style: APA
Order Instructions:
GS 106 Activity: Earthquakes Name: _________________
Part 1: Magnitude Vs. Intensity
The magnitude of an earthquake is the amount of energy that is released as the rocks break. It is the Richter scale number generally displayed by the news.
The intensity of an earthquake is the measure of damage and deaths it caused. A high intensity earthquake means there is lots of destruction and many lives lost.
1) Describe two situations in which a large magnitude earthquake can have a low intensity.
2) Describe two situations in which a small magnitude earthquake can have a high intensity.
3) Two students are debating earthquake intensity and magnitude.
Student 1: An example of a large magnitude earthquake that has a low intensity is if it hit an area with a low population.
Student 2: So, if a really, really large magnitude earthquake hit the desert in California where nobody lives, you’re saying it would not have a high intensity? I don’t agree. If the earthquake is that big, I think it would need to have a high intensity as well.
With which student do you agree? Why?
Part 2: Earthquake Intensities
The Loma Prieta earthquake (1989) caused 63
fatalities and $10 billion in damage. During this large 7.1 magnitude earthquake, there was heavy damage near the fault line where it moved, but there was more damage approximately 50 miles away at the edges of heavily-populated San Francisco Bay. The buildings and bridges that were built on soft sediments near the Bay were destroyed or damaged.
4) The Loma Prieta earthquake is an earthquake with a high intensity. Explain why the earthquake had such a high intensity. There will be more than one reason. (Hint: the film, Living with Earth part 1 will help you)
Part 3: Locating an earthquake.
Choose from the following:
San Franscisco
Southern California
Japan
Mexico

Semiotic Theory and Meaning-Making Process of Signification

Semiotic Theory and Meaning-Making Process of Signification

 

Based on the dictionary definition, semiotics is the study of signs and symbols as elements of language or other systems of communication. Consequently, semiotics theory is a philosophical theory of the functions of signs and symbols. A person who studies or practices semiotics is known as a semiotician. Swiss linguist Ferdinand de Saussure (1857-1913) introduced many of the terms and concepts used by contemporary semioticians.

According to the theory, semiotic comprises of semantics, as well as syntactics and pragmatics. First, syntactics is the branch of semiotics that deals with the formal properties of signs and symbols. On the other hand, semantics is the branch of semiotics that deals with the relationship of signs to their designation and the objects that they do denote. Pragmatics, which is the other branch of semiotics, deals with the biotic aspects of semiosis. These biotic aspects range from the biological, psychological as well as the sociological phenomena, which occur in the functioning of signs.

Semiotics goes way beyond just the study of signs and sign processes. It also includes designation, indication, analogy, likeness, symbolism, metaphor as well as signification and communication. Moreover, semiotics is closely related to the field of linguistics in its applications. Linguistics as a discipline, usually deals with the study of the structure and meaning of language. However, in comparison to linguistics as a discipline, semiotics also studies non-linguistic sign systems.

According to Scholes, the semiotic theory focuses on the social and cultural meaning of signs and codes (Scholes, 1982). By definition, a sign consists of an image, an object, a word and /or even a certain type of practice. Usually, the meaning of signs depends on the relationships between the signifier and the signified, that is, the implied meaning (Scholes, 1982). For example, people learn that certain colors such as red and green when used as signifiers have certain signified meanings, that is, stop and go with the referent being pulling up and starting a car on the street based on a set of cultural codes and conventions (Peim, 1993)

According to Thibault, the focus of social semiotics lies on the social meaning-making practices of all kinds, whether visual, aural, or verbal in nature (Thibault, 1991). Thus, social semiotics is the study of the social dimensions of meaning, as well as of the power of human processes of signification and interpretation in shaping individuals and societies.

Factually, semiotics is the theory of the production and interpretation of meaning, and therefore. Its basic principle is that meaning is made by the deployment of acts and objects, which function as “signs” in relation to other signs. In comparison, social semiotics takes the meaning-making process to be more fundamental than the system of meaning-relations among signs, while general semiotics tend to be formal by abstracting signs from the contexts of use.

Multimedia semiotics are based on the principle that all meaning-making processes necessarily overflows the analytical boundaries between discrete, idealized semiotic resource systems such as gesture, language, action, depiction et cetera.

For example, in the second advertisement attached, the expressed or intended message (signification) in the advertisement is clearly outlined even without having to use numerous wordings. The signification is also portrayed by the use of the text, “iPod, I’m your father”. This brings the intended meaning, which is meant to remind the users of iPods that radio cassettes were used long before the iPods were invented. That is why the author goes a step further to pose the question, “Do you remember?” to the same audience. In that advertisement, the author is trying to communicate to the users as well as the manufacturers of the iPod gadgets in a short and clear visual object that will be used to bring out the signification. The use of pictographs and icons is key in semiotics since it is easier to communicate to audiences using visual objects as compared to written or verbal, which many audiences tend to assume because they claim that they are wordy and, therefore, takes a lot of time to read. The only demerit of visual adverts is that it is limiting to people who are visually impaired.

Movie Influenza 1918

Order topic: Movie Influenza 1918

Type: Essay

Academic level: High School

Formatting style: MLA

Additional information:

Reference is the movie “Influenza 1918” PBS. American Experience
Just analysis and own thinking about the movie.

Pages: 3

 

 

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Movie: Influenza 1918.

The movie, as the name suggests is an account of the 1918 influenza pandemic which occurred between January 1918 and December 1920. This pandemic is considered a major disaster in human history, and it occurred as an epilogue of the 1st World War. Medical practitioners at the time determined that it was a viral infection that was caused by a strain of influenza virus known as H1N1, a strain that the world had not encountered before in history. The virus infected over 500 million people all over the world, and killing close to 5% of the world’s population at the time, that is about 100 million people. The virus was nicknamed ‘The Spanish Flu’, not because Spain was the hardest hit, but due to severe illness of the country’s King Alfonso XIII. In the United States, the first people to be infected were from Haskell County, Kansas, from where the virus spread like wildfire, facilitated by the way the American soldiers lived in close quarters. In the United States alone the virus killed about 600,000 people. The movie Influenza 1918: The American Experience recounts the events as they happened in America.

The movie was produced in the year 1998 by Margaret Drain as the executive producer, Robert Kenner and Larry LeCain. It was directed by Robert Kenner. The lead actors included Alfred Crosby, Shirley Fannin, John De Lano, William Maxwell, Porter Reading and Barbara Rosencrantz. The events were narrated by Linda Hunt. The movie is classified as a medical documentary, 60 minutes long.

The title of the movie, Influenza 1918: The American Experience is minimalist and is straight to the point. It tells what the movie is all about without wasting words. The title is appropriate for the film as it tells us what to expect.

The movie details the events as they happened during the pandemic. It starts by a young soldier who reports of the infection, and as the day goes by, more and more people report the same type of symptoms. It explains how a bluish fluid was found in the lungs of some American soldiers. The disease was diagnosed to be influenza, but the severity of the infection was unlike any strain ever seen.  As Linda narrates, some infected people were fine and looked healthy in the morning only to pass on by evening. The events are illustrated in the film through fantastic archival photographs that were taken during the period of the pandemic. In addition, the film employs use of archival footage together with intimate interviews from some of the survivors and medical historians. Medical science at the time failed to provide a remedy to the problem, and as the film explains, people turned to folk remedies, like garlic, camphor and kerosene-soaked sugar.

The movie flows smoothly, with chronological narration from Linda. The interviews are really informative and interactive, as they give firsthand accounts of what happened. This was the case especially the interview with Dr Alfred Colby and Dr Shirley Fannin. The mood of the event rubs off on the viewers, as the survivors narrate their own versions of the experience.

The use of still archival photographs was brilliant, as it portrayed the scenes as they were. The images of patients in hospitals and those of the soldiers in the camps served to reconstruct the grim setting during the medical disaster. The pictures of people wearing masks clearly illustrated the severity of the pandemic and the ease of transmission of the disease. The use of archive film footage really recreated the tone of the difficult times.

The setting of the movie was in the period of 1918- 1920, and the visual artistry efficiently captured this fact. The cast was composed of the real victims who experienced everything and survived. The events were still fresh in their minds, as evidenced by how smoothly and chronologically they gave their stories. The times were tough and people lived in fear, according to John de Lano’s account, “Everybody was living in deadly fear because it was so quick, so sudden, and so terrifying.”

The plot of the movie was completely factual, and the characters, through their words and actions, came across as credible. The director of the movie erred on the moody side of the pandemic more than the factual side of the incidence. The movie did a pretty good job of invoking feelings of sympathy and sadness. The viewer actually feels the pain of the victims. The music used in the film was in line with the mood and settings, as it enhanced the gloom in the movie. The lighting and positioning of cameras was good, but not really outstanding. The average cinematography results in an ordinary overall film.

While the movie’s science was to be taken with a grain of salt, for instance a comment by one of the survivors, who claimed that the disease was caused by extensive burning of manure in Kansas, and that later, the sun darkened before a victim passed away. These claims were dismissed by medical practitioners. In addition, the director did not give priority to the actual complete history of the influenza pandemic, but paid more attention to the mood side of the story. However, the movie does a good job in influencing the mood of the viewer. Another downside of the movie is that it seems like the producers and directors took a “good” influential story and made a movie out of it, and this tends to make the movie seem like ‘commercial’.

The length of the film of one hour was appropriate for this type of movie, as it is not so long that the viewer gets bored and distracted. In addition, it is not so short that the viewer fails to capture the essence of the film. Watching the film in its entirety therefore should not be a problem for those who are easily distracted or those with short attention spans.

This movie stands out from other medical thrillers, because by the end of the movie, the cure to the virus had not yet been found is, that is, there is no happy ending. This is unlike other movies in the same category, where the story starts with a difficult medical situation which is conquered by the end of the movie. This is mainly because the movie in question recounts actual events that happened in history, hence the story cannot be twisted around to recreate events that did not happen.

Throughout the movie, the cast members each perform their roles efficiently. Each of them was given ample time to recount the experience as they remember it. They take us through their experiences, the good, bad and ugly. The viewer is able to feel their pain through the cast members’ words and emotions.

All in all, it is a movie that is well produced. The inclusion of actual survivors greatly improves the credibility of the events that happened during the influenza pandemic. The powerful combination of narration, still photos, film footage and interactive interviews was a brilliant way to put the whole story together. The best part was travelling through the journey with the victims as they narrated the story. The movie efficiently reminds us of a historical disaster that most have forgotten. Watching it reminds one of the importances of being prepared for medical disasters. Overall, it is a brilliant movie that is well put together, depicting a country that was caught off guard by a medical disaster. I believe it is worth sparing an hour of your time to watch the great medical documentary.

American ethnic literature

images (1)Order topic: American ethnic literature

Type: Essay

Academic level: College

Formatting style: APA

Additional information:

What makes American literature American?
W hat is literary canon? How does literary canon relate to what is going on in society?
What special challenges do ethnic writers have within the American literary experience How do ethnic writers define literature? How does that differ from the canon of traditional American literature?
What historical, socio-political, and cultural topics might be covered by ethnic writers? How does this differ from the canon of traditional American literature?
How are the American literary themes of liberty, opportunity and equality addressed in ethnic literature?

Discussion Paper- Amish

What makes the group unique from other groups?

Why does the group have the name/title it has?

How long has the group been in existence?

Why did you join the group? What do you have to do to stay in the group?

What are some of the rules/regulations in the group? Unspoken rules?

What are some taboos in the group? Consequences?

How can a person become a member? How can the person lose membership?

Lingo/jargon/secret handshakes?

History/background of the group?

What are the key values of the group?

Where does the group meet? When?

Power? Hierarchy?

How many members are in the group? Is there a limit to the number of members? Exclusive/inclusive?

What’s the purpose/mission of the group?

What do you want outsiders to know about the group?

What does the group think of outsiders? What does it think outsiders think of it?

Scale of the group?

What are the benefits of membership?

How much time does the group take up?

Traditions/rituals of the group?

Demographic for group?

amishAre there any stigmas/misconceptions about the group? Why?

 

Patient Rights

Order topic: Patient Rights
Type: Essay
Academic level: University
Formatting style: APA
Additional information:
A 1,500-word paper that addresses the significance of the Nuremberg Code and the Belmont Report. Address why the events that led up to their creation are important and how their creation affects the ethical issues surrounding clinical trials today. What ethical restraints and guidelines exist for conducting clinical trials and how this pertains to special populations (i.e., minors, prisoners, persons with mental disabilities)?
No abstract
Pages: 4